Yellow tangs are one of the most prized marine fish species.
They’re popular for their dazzling color, bold personality, and relatively easy care.
They make an excellent addition to reef aquariums with their colorful appearance and active nature.
Let’s learn about yellow tangs in more detail.
Yellow Tang Species Overview
Yellow tangs, also called Yellow Sailfin Tang or Yellow Surgeonfish, are one of the most popular saltwater fish species in the Acanthuridae family.
Yellow tangs though endemic to Hawaiian waters are widespread all through the Pacific Ocean.
They’re commonly found in tropical reefs of the Pacific Ocean around the Hawaiian Islands and the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida.
The habitat of this species ranges from inside the reef to the depths of 100 feet or more.
The larger specimen inhabit the shallow waters near the reef, while the young yellow tangs usually prefer the deeper waters where finger corals are present.
Yellow tangs are famous for their bright coloration and unique shape.
They start their life as larvae before developing an oval-shaped body with bright yellow color.
They’re covered with mucus secreted through their skin.
The mucus helps them to stay away from bacteria and parasites by forming a protective layer.
It also makes their body less resistant to water, enabling them to swim faster.
Yellow tangs have seven fins, including their spiny anal and dorsal fins.
They have a snout-shaped face used to graze on algae and marine plants.
Another unique feature of yellow tangs is that they change color.
During the day, these fish are bright yellow all over except their spines.
However, their color fades slightly at night. They develop a brownish patch in the middle with a horizontal white band.
Male and female yellow tangs look very similar.
But males change color during mating and have a shimmering behavior that makes them identifiable.
In the wild, yellow tangs can live up to 30 years if they make it to adulthood.
However, the lifespan of these fish is much lower in captivity.
In home aquariums, the average lifespan of yellow tangs is around 5 to 10 years once they live past the first year.
The lifespan in captivity largely depends on their genetic condition, diet, living habitat, and how well you take care of them.
Adult yellow tangs can grow up to 8 inches in length and around 0.8 inches in thickness in their natural habitat.
However, the average size of yellow tangs is around 6 inches in a marine aquarium, even with the best care.
Adult male yellow tangs tend to be larger than females.
Similar to lifespan, the average size of these fish differs in captivity compared to those living in the wild.
Yellow Tang Tank Setup
Yellow tangs do well when kept in an appropriate-sized tank as they like to explore every part of the tank.
It’s best to closely replicate their natural environment to keep them healthy and make them feel at home.
Let’s understand how to set up a yellow tang tank in detail.
Yellow tangs are highly active fish. They need ample space in the tank to explore their surroundings and stay healthy.
A 90-gallon tank is recommended for these fish.
If you house them in a community aquarium, a larger tank is needed for every fish to claim their territory.
Live rock structures are essential for this species.
They rely on the rock layout to claim their territory. So the tank needs to be bigger to accommodate these pieces.
Keeping yellow tangs in a smaller tank can stress them, leading to a decrease in appetite and lethargic behavior.
They may even get sick and succumb to diseases due to lower immunity.
Tank Equipment and Decorations
Yellow tangs are reef safe and can be included in a marine reef tank setup.
They spend a considerable amount of time grazing on algae. So, plenty of live rocks are recommended for these species.
A filter is required to maintain the water quality. They also prefer warm water; hence, a heater is a prerequisite in the tank.
An air pump can be installed to help circulate air through the tank.
This helps prevent the build-up of ammonia and nitrite levels which can cause stress and diseases.
Given below are the items required in a yellow tang tank:
- Live rocks,
- Substrate or gravel,
- Hiding places such as rocks, caves, etc.,
- Air pump, and
- Adequate lighting.
Yellow Tang Care
Yellow tangs are expensive but easy to take care of and are an excellent choice for beginner aquarists as they require minimal maintenance.
However, proper care is essential to ensure your yellow tang stays happy and healthy.
Yellow tangs primarily feed on plant-based food. However, they occasionally munch on meaty food to meet their protein requirement.
In the wild, yellow tangs consume benthic turf algae and other marine plant matter available in their surroundings.
Accordingly, you can feed these fish nori (roasted or dried seaweed), algae tablets, vitamin-enriched flakes, and veggies such as broccoli, lettuce, zucchini, carrots, and kale.
Besides, you can find yellow tangs grazing on algae, diatoms, detritus, seaweeds, and filamentous algae throughout the day in their tank.
Feeding live food such as bloodworms, brine shrimp, or marine fish meat and frozen mysis occasionally as a treat is good for their overall health.
Yellow tangs prefer tropical conditions with clear waters and stable water parameters.
They’re generally hardy, and hence slight variations in water parameters are acceptable.
These fish are highly sensitive to poor water conditions as they’re prone to certain marine water disorders.
Hence, it’s best to mimic the water conditions of their natural environment.
The ideal water parameters for yellow tangs are:
Water Temperature: 72°F to 82°F (22°C to 28°C)
Water pH: 8.1 to 8.4
Water Hardness (dGH): 5 to 20
A well-maintained and properly cycled tank is critical for the optimal growth of yellow tangs.
These fish can’t tolerate poor water quality and can easily succumb to diseases.
Hence, regular maintenance of the tank is essential. Regular cleaning of the tank ensures that the water quality remains optimal.
It also prevents the growth of harmful bacteria and fungi.
You can perform a partial water change of around 30% every week to prevent the build-up of waste and harmful toxins.
It’s also essential to regularly clean the substrate to remove debris and dead organisms.
Yellow tangs are pretty hardy in a saltwater aquarium that has been fully cycled.
However, that doesn’t mean that they’re not immune to diseases.
Poor water conditions or improper tank maintenance can weaken their immune system, making them susceptible to diseases.
Given below are a few of the common diseases that can affect yellow tangs:
- Saltwater Ich (white spot and blackspot forms),
- Hole in the head,
- Bacterial and fungal infections,
- Fin rot, etc.
It’s crucial to keep an eye on any signs of illness so you can treat them early before they become more serious.
It’s also advisable to immediately quarantine the fish if the disease is contagious.
Yellow Tang Behavior and Temperament
Yellow tangs have great personalities.
They’re lively fish, and you can often see them actively darting throughout the tank.
However, these fish are a little timid when you first introduce them to a new environment.
They become comfortable once they get used to their surroundings.
Yellow tangs are not an aggressive species.
However, they’re aggressive toward their own species, other zebrasoma species of tangs (if they’re not introduced simultaneously), or any other fish with the same shape and similar look.
Although not aggressive, yellow tangs do squabble over food and territorial disputes.
Hence, it’s vital to house them in a large tank and provide sufficient food to keep their aggression at bay.
Yellow Tang Tankmates
Yellow tangs get along with most of the fish species. Hence, they’re favorites among aquarists for a community aquarium.
They can also be included in a marine reef tank. Yellow tangs are considered reef-safe.
However, you need to keep a close eye on them. They can damage some coral species while grazing on algae.
Some of the compatible tankmates for yellow tangs are:
- Other tang species such as sailfin tangs, clown tangs, hippo tangs, etc.,
- Copperband Butterfly,
- Bangaii Cardinalfish,
- Lyretail Anthias,
- Royal Gramma,
- Cleaner Wrasse,
- Mandarin Goby,
- Melanarus Wrasse, etc.
While yellow tangs tend to be aggressive toward their kind, you can house them together provided they’re introduced into the tank at the same time and all of them are of similar size.
Introducing yellow tangs together can gradually make them acquainted with one another and help prevent aggression.
Also, the tank should be large enough with ample swimming space and have live rocks for each fish to claim its territory.
You must avoid housing yellow tangs with large aggressive and predatory fish that can bully them.
Some of the fish that you should avoid keeping with yellow tangs are:
- Groupers, and
Yellow Tang Breeding
Yellow tangs are very tough to breed in captivity.
Experienced aquarists have still not successfully bred these fish in a home aquarium.
These fish, however, breed successfully in their natural environment.
Spawning peaks from March to September, although some fish spawn throughout the year.
Yellow tangs are group spawners. In their natural habitat, they travel in loose schools or alone and spawn around the time of the full moon.
In the wild, a yellow tang pair courts bizarrely when the breeding season approaches.
During spawning, the female releases her eggs in open water.
An average female yellow tang can lay about 40000 eggs. The eggs are then fertilized externally by the male yellow tang.
These fish species lack parental instincts and don’t guard their eggs.
Clear, pelagic larvae develop in the plankton after the eggs hatch.
They enter the acronurus larva stage, developing an oval body, spines, and ventral and dorsal fins.
After about ten weeks, these fish enter the planktonic stage, when they get carried to a coral reef by the waves.
They grow further and mature into young fish in the coral reefs.
Although yellow tangs aren’t bred successfully in captivity, the Oceanic Institute at Hawaii Pacific University has successfully bred and raised the first aqua-cultured yellow tangs.